Friday, 27 October 2017

Legal Implications of the Use of Social Media by Armed Actors

The use of apps, social media and other methods of digital communication between people is constantly on the increase. This practice has extended into armed conflicts, where parties to the conflicts use such tools for their communications. Is international humanitarian law (IHL) applicable to the employment of these new technologies during armed conflict—and if so, how? Read Pontus Winther's post in ICRCs blog Humanitarian Law and Policy.
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Thursday, 17 August 2017

Invitation to a panel discussion on Cyber operations and international law

Stockholm Center for International Law and Justice and the Centre for International and Operational Law (CIOL) at the Swedish Defence University invite you to a panel discussion on


Cyber operations and international law: prospects for global norms?


Although some early enthusiasts thought of cyberspace as a realm beyond sovereignty, it is now abundantly clear that both domestic law and international law apply to cyberspace. However, there is no international convention on security in cyberspace and no global consensus on exactly how existing international law applies. A UN Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) has been trying to set out how current international law applies and formulate draft rules on responsible behaviour in cyberspace, but their latest meeting, in 2017, was ultimately unsuccessful. Efforts are ongoing in other fora, like the G20 and OSCE, but the world is still far from agreement on how existing law shall apply and what, if any, new rules are needed. In the meantime, the number of cyber incidents are multiplying and getting more serious, with attacks from both states and non-state actors. This panel will present current efforts of regulating security cyberspace and discuss the prospects for future regulations.


Presentation of the problem -- the application of international law to cyber operations (Professor Pål Wrange, Stockholm University)

The Tallinn Manual process (Professor Terry Gill, University of Amsterdam)

The GGE (Ambassador Marja Lehto, Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs)

The Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace (Ambassador Marina Kaljurand, chair of the commission)


Monday 28th August 2017 14:00-15:00 in lecture hall 5,

Level 3, B Building, University Campus Place, Frescati


This event has been made possible through a generous grant from the Marcus Wallenberg Foundation for International Scientific Collaboration
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Wednesday, 28 June 2017

Centrum för operativ juridik och folkrätt åker till Almedalen

Försvarshögskolan finns på plats i Visby under Almedalsveckan 2017. Centrum för Operativ Juridik och Folkrätt kommer också att finnas på plats för seminarier och diskussioner kring krisberedskap, totalförsvarslagstiftning och folkrätt.

Den 3 juli kl. 11.45-12.30 genomförs seminariet "Höjd beredskap - ett verktyg för samhällsstörningar i gråzonen"
Deltar gör:
- Peter Hultqvist, Försvarsminister
- Nils Svartz, Vikarierande generaldirektör, Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB)
- Jenny Deschamps-Berger, Chef Sektionen för analysstöd vid Crismart, Försvarshögskolan
- Marika Ericson, Doktorand i internationell rätt och militärteknik
Modererar gör Robert Egnell, institutionschef vid Institutionen för säkerhet, strategi och ledarskap (ISSL), Försvarshögskolan
Länk till seminariet:

Länkar till övriga FHS seminarier:
Triple Helix - ett verktyg mot framtida militära hot

Framtidens soldat – en hacker? Så fungerar cyberförsvaret

Så attraherar vi unga till försvaret

Så påverkar Trump och Brexit det europeiska försvarssamarbetet

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Wednesday, 5 April 2017

New Publication: The Practice of Shared Responsibility in International Law

Professor Kleffner acted as co-editor of the international military operations cluster (chapters 23-30) of the publication 'The Practice of Shared Responsibility in International Law', published by Cambridge University Press. The book is edited by Professor André Nollkaemper and Dr. Ilias Plakokefalos. You can find out more about the publication at
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Tallinn Manual 2.0 published

The second edition of the Tallinn Manual, entitled 'Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations' has been published by Cambridge University Press. The Manual has been prepared by an international group of experts at the invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. Professor Michael N. Schmitt of the US Naval War College and the University of Exeter acted as Director and General Editor. Professor Jann Kleffner contributed to the Manual and Dr. Heather Harrison Dinniss acted as one of the legal peer reviewers. You can learn more about Tallinn 2.0 and its launch at and at
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Saturday, 1 April 2017

Third and Final Working Session Day of the Seminar

All good things must come to an end, and so has the XI Seminar for Legal Advisors of the Armed Forces.

On Friday, the final day went under the theme New Military Technologies and the Law. It was chared by Brigadier-General Professor Dr. Paul Ducheine (National Defence University; The Netherlands).
Brigadier-General Professor Dr. Paul Ducheine. Photo: Zarah Abrahamsson

First speaker of the day was Marika Ericson (lecturer and PhD candidate, Swedish Defence University; Sweden) on the topic of the Swedish experiences in regards of the interplay between domestic law and international law, and the institutional responsibilities.
Ms Ericson emphasized that the weakest point in cyber security is that technology is developed based on everything but security. Moreover, is cyberattacks a challange to the dichotomy of war and peace? Do we need a third paradigm?
Marika Ericson. Photo: Zarah Abrahamsson
Colonel Gary Corn (Staff Judge Advocate, US Cyber Command; USA) gave a presentation on Navigating Grey Zone Challenges in and through Cypberspace. COL Corn also pointed out the difficulty of categorizing a cyberattack as an armed attack or as an action in peace time. He emphasized that before taking countermeasures to a cyberattack, states have to analyze what authority it has, and that states need to have justification in interantional law in order to take action. He also stressed the necessity of defining whether the cyberattack breached any interanational laws or was lawful.
Colonel Gary Corn. Photo: Zarah Abrahamsson
The Seminar continued with a presentation from Dr. Heather Harrison Dinniss (Senior Lecturer in international law, Swedish Defence University; Sweden) on Human Enhancement Technologies: Solider 2.0 – Miliatry Human Enhancement & International Law. As Dr. Harrison Dinniss clarified, the human enhancement applies to the idea of Captain America rather than the Terminator, that is, not robots. She talked about three major developments in human enhancement: biochemical, cybernetics and prostheses. We are upgrading people. Giving them abilities what is beyond what is considered “normal”.
Dr. Heather Harrison Dinniss. Photo: Zarah Abrahamsson

Dr. Bill Boothby (Associate Fellow Geneva Centre for Security Policy, UK) spoke of autonomous weapons and some of the problems with the concept of "person in the loop" in regards of remotely polited aircrafts. The loop consists of two links: the uplink from the operator to the aircraft through which instructions are given; and the downlink from the aircraft to the centre giving information to the operator - who gives instructions to the aircraft.
Dr. Bill Boothby. Photo: Zarah Abrahamsson

The Seminar ended with a closing dinner.

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